The wonders of Spanish Spiders..not the myths!

Female Hogna ferox, Lycosidae family.
Female Hogna ferox, Lycosidae family © Molly . K. Grace

We really like Spiders here at the Inglorious Bustards but we know they do attract a lot of hysteria and quite a bit of misinformation!

So we turned to Molly Grace, spider enthusiast and expert to dispel the myths and bring you closer to these fabulous inhabitants of Southern Spain…….

Before we begin, here are 3 spider facts that are important to understand:

Fact n°1: Spider bites are extremely rare. Spiders simply do not go around biting people. In fact, their bites are so rare that you are more likely to get bitten by a dog than a spider, and expert arachnologists say that unless you physically see the spider sink it’s chelicerae (fangs) into your skin, the chances are that your suspected spider bite is not from a spider at all! For a spider to bite it has to be in a near death situation, provoked or even squished onto your skin with such force that the only option it has left is to bite.

Fact n°2: Doctors and/or Pharmacists cannot ID a spider bite. Unless that Doctor has studied arachnology and can guess (without seeing the spider) what family, genus and species it was that bit you and knows what venom that particular spider has, they cannot tell you if it was a spider that bit you. If you happen to have the spider that you suspect was the culprit for your bite and your Doctor is unable to give you at least it’s genus, just take it with a pinch of salt if he or she has told you it’s a spider that did it. However, someone who has studied insects and/or spiders can ID a spider bite. So remember to ask the right person for the right job if you suspect you have been bitten. You don’t call a plumber for an electrical problem and the same goes for spider bites and doctors.

Fact n°3: Any bite can get infected. If you are blaming a spider’s “venom” on your leg/arm/hand or any other part of your body being swollen and oozing pus, the culprit could well be Staphylococcus aureus. This type of bacteria is present in so many places including under your nails when you scratch your skin, so your supposed spider bite could in fact be a mosquito bite that has got infected, or an allergic reaction to a weed. If you have been bitten by any insect or spider, the chances of it swelling up and getting infected are very low if you clean the area with an antiseptic.

Now that this has been explained (very important information as an introduction to anything about spiders) we can move on and continue with our main topic: the spiders of Spain!

In terms of Spanish arachnids and their interactions with people, it’s worthy to note that there are 0 cases of spiders killing anyone here in Spain. Just as some British media companies occasionally fear-monger and publish articles about “deadly” false widow spiders that are actually harmless, the Spanish media has been doing the same to a species that cannot even be found here in the country.  Plus, if you look at these stories closely not once do they ask experts. Why? My guess is that facts are considered boring and those stories wouldn’t sell. They would rather sell a dramatic and biased lie.

Also, one too many times I have come across internet sites dedicated to the British expat community in Spain with information about “dangerous” spiders that we can find in the Iberian peninsula, and sadly 100% of the time not only is the information on these sites beyond incorrect, it also spreads fear to any person looking to relocate here or visit for a holiday.

Let’s now have a look at the spiders you are more likely to come across and watch out for. Sometimes you fear what you don’t understand, which is very normal, so I hope this information will at least shed some light on what is truly making a web in your garden or crawling around the corners of your house. And if you still fear them after reading, it’s OK, but at least you will know a bit more about the little eight- legged creature that has innocently walked into your home.

Lycosidae (Wolf spiders)

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Hogna ferox © Molly . K. Grace

Wolf spiders come in all sizes, from the very small ones, to some that can just about fit in the palm of your hand. There are 4 large wolf spiders here in Spain from two different genus:

– Lycosa hispanica

 

– Lycosa fasciiventris

– Hogna radiata, and

– Hogna ferox.

All but one of these spiders are active hunters (meaning they search for their food), the other makes a burrow in the ground and awaits its prey. Those that venture out become most active at night, they don’t make webs, and just like a wolf they go “on the prowl” looking for their dinner. They are not aggressive spiders and do not bite – unless provoked or squished, as mentioned above in this article – but if you did somehow get bitten you can expect the same pain and reaction that you would to a wasp sting. If you find one in your house simply remove it using a glass and paper , and make sure he or she is released to a safe location.

 

Araneidae (Orb weaving spiders)

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Argiope lobata © Molly . K. Grace

There are numerous Orb weavers that you can come across here in Spain, and the most common to spot are from the Araneus and Argiope genus. They are all quite clumsy on the ground and are usually found in the centre of their majestic webs where they patiently wait for their meal to become trapped. They are surprisingly agile and merciless when this happens! For us humans, they make ideal friends to have in the garden. In fact, Argiope like to build their webs near vegetable patches where they can serve as an excellent form of pest control. And I for one wouldn’t worry about flies with one of them nearby!

 

 

 

Sparassidae (Giant crab spiders/Huntsman spiders)

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Eusparassus dufouri © Molly . K. Grace

As with wolf spiders, Huntsman spiders come in different sizes. The common ones here in Spain are from the Micrommata genus (green huntsman) and the Eusparassus genus, these last being the largest ones of this family that can be found here in Spain (there are a LOT bigger ones in Australia, though!). Huntsman spiders are very fast and also very timid, which is why they like being hidden away in dark crevices and tree bark where they will not be disturbed. Just like the wolf spiders, they do not use webs but physically hunt their prey down. Special caution should be given to female Eusparassus guarding their egg sacs, they have been known to bite in defence if she feels that her offsprings are in danger.

 

Salticidae (Jumping spiders)

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Plexippus paykulli (On my finger and it didn’t bite me!) © Molly . K. Grace

Spain has many of these spiders from different genus. If I got 1€ for every time someone has told me they have been bitten by one of these little cuties and 2€ for being told that they have sent someone to hospital from a bad bite, I’d be quite rich indeed. However, they feed on fruit flies and other tiny insects, and half of them are so small that their fangs can’t even penetrate human skin! Jumping spiders are extremely intelligent and social, so much so that people actually keep them as pets (yes, you read that right)! They definitely don’t go around jumping and biting for the sake of it – remember fact n°1 in this article – and if one of the larger ones (which don’t even live here in Spain) did happen to bite you, you would have a hard time differentiating it from a common mosquito bite. Similar to orb weavers in the garden, jumping spiders make ideal allies indoors. You can say goodbye to mosquitoes without the use of pesticides if you have a jumping spider as your flat-mate!

 

Sicariidae (Violin Spiders)

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Loxosceles rufescens © Molly . K. Grace

Spain has one species from the Loxosceles (recluse spiders) genus, Loxosceles rufescens. Not to be confused with the Brown recluse or the Chilean recluse, the Mediterranean recluse is not as dangerous as it’s overseas cousins. Recluse spiders are not aggressive at all, and one would only bite if being squished. I have handled many of them with my bare hands and I’m still alive! Nevertheless, this is one spider people will single out and try to make you fear. You should be cautious of course, but there is no need to act as if it’s lethal. Its venom has been known to cause adverse affects but bites are rare (in America for example, out of the 64 reported brown recluse bites between 1939 and 2014, only 6 of them turned out to really be from this species). You can identify a Mediterranean recluse spider by the violin shape on its cephalothorax (upper body) and it’s 6 eyes in sets of 2. They like dark areas where they will not be disturbed like cupboards, crevices and, one of their favourites, clothes piles that remain undisturbed for a long time (good excuse to keep your bedroom floor clean, right?). If you find one in your house and it’s not welcome, use a paper and glass to remove it to a safe location.

 

Macrothelidae (Large spinnerets spider)

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Juvenile female Macrothele calpeiana © Molly . K. Grace

Spain has one species of this genus, the Macrothele calpeiana or the Andalucían funnel web. It’s both the only protected spider species throughout Europe, and also the largest (reaching up to 80 mm in size). At one point it could only be found in the oak forests in the province of Cádiz, but sadly due to the destruction of its habitat and the trafficking of the species amongst irresponsible spider enthusiasts, this spider is now not only rare, but can be found in other areas throughout Andalucía and even in Portugal, Africa and Italy. It can be identified by its black colour and its large spinnerets at the end of its abdomen. It builds deep funnel web tunnels in the bark of oak trees and under rocks. Females are rarely seen and will not leave their webs unless it’s destroyed or food is scarce, but males venture out during mating season. Again, it is a protected species, therefore killing it and/or removing it from its natural habitat is punishable by Law. There is another spider that sometimes gets confused as Macrothele calpeiana, this usually is a male Amblyocarenum walckenaeri (a species of Wafer trapdoor spider) who at a glance can look very much like the Andalucían funnel web, except it lacks the long spinnerets and tends to have a dark brown abdomen.

 

Theridiidae (Comb footed spiders)

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Female Steatoda paykulliana (False widow spider) © Molly . K. Grace

In this family we can find False widow spiders (Steatoda genus) and true widow spiders (Latrodectus genus) amongst others. Spain has numerous spiders from this family including false widow species (Steatoda) and two true widows (Latrodectus) which are Latrodectus tridecimguttatus (Mediterranean widow) and Latrodectus ilianae. They are distributed around Spain although some provinces have no sightings of them at all. There have been no registered bites from either of these spiders and not enough is known about their venom to say what kind of effect it has on humans, however it is known that the venom itself is a neurotoxin but not as powerful as the venom from other species of Latrodectus found in America and Oceania. They, like the others, are not aggressive spiders.

 

For more information, identification and facts on spiders feel free to visit my Facebook page Molly’s web https://m.facebook.com/Mollysweb/ or follow me on Instagram @Mollysweb. And thank you for reading this article! My main motivation is to help people overcome any fears they may have, using fact-based arguments which create interest and understanding. So I truly hope this has served its purpose!

They’re coming! – a spring migration spectacular!

Our Strait Birding & Cetaceans spring migration spectacular is coming soon, and there are still spaces available! Here´s a flavour of what happened last time…

“The clouds were low and moody, and the winds pretty strong, but the intrepid Black Kites had decided, “Stuff it! This will do!”.  One by one, and then by the dozen, they started to appear out of the clouds, wings beating like crazy and some barely making land!  We watched, hearts in mouths as two individuals struggled right in front of us, so close we could almost have dragged them in with a well-flung lasso!

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Black Kite © Inglorious Bustards

There are no thermals over the sea, which is what makes crossing it so treacherous for soaring birds.  Though barely metres from land, they were having to use the diagonal wind to gain lift, increasing the length of their journey many times. Then, after what seemed like an age they hit land and instantly found a thermal, taking them from a couple of metres above the sea to a couple of hundred metres above the land within seconds!  We cheered them on with a massive amount of relief!

“Exhilarated, we headed down to the village for a coffee.  But our break was not to be an uneventful one!  Suddenly a break appeared between two large clouds over Punta Carnero and Gibraltar, effectively creating a sunlit channel of warm air which stretched right from the coast of Morocco to just above our heads!

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White Storks and inter-mingling Black Kites © Inglorious Bustards

This was the moment they – and we – had been waiting for!   Necking our coffee we took up position by the sea wall as they began to arrive.  Over the next hour or so we witnessed an immense river of raptors and storks arriving from Africa.  Three hundred Black Kites, twenty Griffon Vultures, three hundred Short-toed Eagles, over a hundred Booted Eagles, 38 Black Storks, thirty or more Western Marsh Harriers and a sprinkling of Egyptian Vultures, Montagu´s Harriers, Eurasian Sparrowhawks and Lesser Kestrels poured over us in one of Nature´s most uplifting and vibrant spectacles.  We abandoned all plans and ate our picnic right there, barely finding a quiet moment between migratory waves to grab a plate of food!”

This trip, running 28th March  – 3rd April 2020, is not to be missed!  Check out further information on our website here for your ringside seat to the greatest show on Earth…

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Short-toed Eagle © Inglorious Bustards
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The Spring 2018 team – check out the new found Raptor watching skills!
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Booted Eagle © Inglorious Bustards
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White Storks © Inglorious Bustards
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Long-finned Pilot Whales © Inglorious Bustards

We’ve made it onto the Top Ethical Birding Ecotours 2019 list!

When it comes to Ethical Birding Ecotours, it turns out we´re Top of the Pops!

We’re more than just a birding tour company. We care about the wildlife we showcase, the local communities we visit and the opportunities for education through exploration. That’s why we’re excited to announce that we’ve made it into the Top Ethical Birding Ecotours 2019 list!

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This unique list is generated by a global community of travellers, bloggers, conservationists, tour guides, birders and ecotourism operators, and curated by Terra Incognita – a social enterprise seeking to promote the best examples of ethical ecotourism worldwide.  We’re part of a group of over 70 incredible birding tours from across the globe.

First launched in 2018, the list has grown in its second year to include tours in 40 countries.

“With every new tour we discover, we’re amazed to see what operators are doing to have a positive impact on the planet through tourism,” said Dr Nick Askew of Terra Incognita. “Eventually we hope to showcase ethical tour experiences in every country worldwide.”

Tour operators on the list are doing everything from partnering with conservation charities and donating to conservation projects, to offsetting the carbon emissions generated by their business activities and encouraging their guests to do the same during their travels.  Some are contributing to conservation research, while others are empowering local people through environmental education and capacity building, supporting future conservation ambassadors.

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Our partnership working with local conservation organisations like the Gambia Birdwatchers Association is one of the actions that earned us a top spot on the 2019 Terra Incognita Ethical Birding Ecotours list

The list includes a transparent explanation of how all tours contribute to conservation, local communities and education and is open to reviews from guests who’ve participated in the tours.

“It’s exciting to discover ecotourism operators that see sustainability as a fundamental way of doing business, rather than just a marketing strategy or checklist”, said Kristi Foster of Terra Incognita.

“Rather than take away from a tour, guests can join in that creative, innovative process. These tours are experiences where everyone involved learns and grows”, she added.

The Top Ethical Birding Ecotours 2019 list was launched during the British Birdfair 2019 – an annual event for birdwatchers that supports BirdLife International.

Bird experiences highlighted range from Golden-collared Manakin leks in Panama, to reintroduced blue ducks in New Zealand, to searching for Uganda’s iconic Shoebill by canoe. You can even see the autumn Vulture migration across the Strait of Gibraltar, with as many as 2,300 birds recorded in a single hour.

With tours in 40 countries across six continents you can find inspiration to explore a new corner of the world or discover an ethical experience closer to home.

You can view the Ethical Birding Ecotours 2019 list at www.terra-incognita.travel and join a movement to create positive change for people and planet through travel. 

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Ethical optics and #FlywayBirding with @vikingoptical´s Stuart Gillies

When you´re mentally logging the ID features of a lifer or gazing at thermalling raptors, how much thought do you give to what you´re looking through..?

Of the thirty optics companies that were examined in the 2018 Ethical Consumer report entitled “Shooting Wildlife II”, 83% were found to specifically market to hunters as well as birders.  And a disappointing 13 of these actively glamourise trophy hunting in their promotional material, including targets like lions and bears.

That´s why we´re proud to be ambassadors for Viking Optical – a British-based company which is one of only a handful of companies that produce high quality optics solely for the wildlife-watching market.  They too have nature at their heart, and we love the personal contact, trust and compassion involved in working with them.  They really put their optics where their mouth is, enabling us to loan binoculars to volunteers monitoring the raptor migration here, across the Straits of Gibraltar, to bird-watching newcomers, and to budding young Gambian ornithologists.

We caught up with Stuart Gillies, Viking Optical´s front man and top birder, to get his take on migration, conservation and Flyway Birding…

As a birder since childhood (over 40 years now!) and living not far from the coast in Edinburgh, I’ve always been fascinated with migration – from the childishly naïve question to my dad one December “Why aren’t there any Swallows” to looking for the first returning local Yellow Wagtails in Spring and hoping for some continental strays in autumn – it seems a natural preoccupation for UK birders.

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returning Yellow Wagtails, a harbinger of Spring!
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 Vagrants  like this Pallas´s Leaf Warbler add thrills to Autumn birding

However, this parochial obsession with ‘our’ birds was soon replaced by the nagging questions – where are they coming from and where are they going when they leave us?

There has been a great deal of attention placed upon migration flyways as so many species are compelled to follow certain geographical corridors for various reasons and rising public awareness of not just the natural perils of undertaking such arduous journeys but, crucially, increasing negative pressures from human activity.

I’ve seen enormous population crashes in iconic species such as Turtle Dove in my lifetime. Although this is depressing, what is very heartening is the resolve of the global birding and conservation community to highlight the issue, raising not only awareness but also funds to tackle urgent problems and to, incredibly importantly, provide reliable data in order to accurately assess trends.

This is where Viking Optical can help. I have worked for this UK based optical company for 23 years and, with a background in conservation work myself, have been very proud to be part of their commitment to conservation work as optics supplier to the RSPB for over 20 years, Birdlife International species champion for 2 critically endangered birds, joint main sponsor of Birdfair for the past 15 years and optics sponsors for many public engagement projects and young birders/environmentalists.

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Inglorious Bustards´ work immediately struck a chord with me. So much more than a tour company – it is crystal clear that conservation is at the core of everything they do including carbon offset, donating 10% from Gambian tours to local projects, sourcing local produce to name but a few – culminating recently in the recognition by Terra Incognita who promote “responsible tour operators who conserve wildlife, support local people and educate their guests”.

We are very happy and proud to participate in their #FlywayPromise initiative by providing optics for migration counters at Tarifa and also for trainee guides in the Gambia.

To find out more about Viking Optical, our products and what we do please see here – www.vikingoptical.co.uk – or come and visit us in the Optics Marquee at Birdfair, 16-18 August 2019.

 

 

 

Let me introduce The Gambia and its inhabitants

As we ready ourselves for the post-nuptial migration here in the Straits of Gibraltar, our thoughts turn to these great travellers’ wintering grounds where we will soon make our annual pilgrimage and follow in their footsteps.

The juxtaposition of Sahelian scrub habitat and The Gambia River gives a unique biosphere in this area of Africa.  Rather than being dominated by Sahel like that of its neighbouring Countries, it is a mixture of moist forest and Sahel and that is a great draw for migrants as well as stunning resident species.

Let us introduce you to some of the line-up!

The Residents 

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Egyptian Plover © Inglorious Bustards

The Egyptian Plover is the only member of the genus Pluvianus, also referred to (wrongly) as the Crocodile Bird due to its proposed symbiotic relationships with Crocodiles. According to the ancient Greek historian, orator and author Herodotus, the crocodiles lie on the shore with their mouths open and the bird flies into the crocodiles’ mouths so as to feed on decaying meat lodged between the crocodiles’ teeth! However no known modern day observations or photographic evidence of this behaviour exists! Although Herodotus did also comment on furry ants the size of foxes in the Persian Empire !

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Adamawa Turtle Dove © Inglorious Bustards

The Adamawa Turtle Dove has a disjunct population, very little seems to be known about this species, hardly anything exists on its feeding habits and it probably requires further census work to ascertain its preferred habitat and populations.

In case you were wondering……Adamawa was a subordinate kingdom of the Sultanate of Sokoto which also included much of northern Cameroon. The name “Adamawa” originates from the founder of the kingdom Modibo Adama.

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Pearl-spotted Owlet © Inglorious Bustards

If you can whistle like a Pearl-spotted Owlet you are likely to bring in a lot of interest from other forest avian dwellers who want to give you a hard time ! It is a fairly common inhabitant of The Gambia forests and forest edge and we often hear and see them at our sustainable locally-run accommodation. As they often hunt during the day – usually from a perch searching for small mammals, birds and insects – they tend to draw a crowd, as birds love to mob them!

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Green Turaco © Inglorious Bustards

The Turacos  are in the family Musophagidae literally meaning “banana-eaters” – which is fairly apt as they eat fruits, flowers and buds.  These birds can be at times hard to find amongst the treetops of the dense forests, but will often come to water, as we provided here.  Offering it a reliable drinking source and watching from a respectable distance ensured our group got some fabulous views.

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Standard-winged Nightjar © Inglorious Bustards

The adult male Standard-winged Nightjar pictured here (his standards are out of view) has a totally mental wing ornament during the breeding season which consists of a broad central flight feather on each wing elongated to 38 cm, much longer than the bird’s body.  20 cm or more of this is bare shaft then a feather at the end. In normal flight, these feathers trail behind, but in display flight they are raised vertically like….well…like standards…or flags!…A crazy example of sexual selection!

Interestingly there have been studies by Malte Andersson in 1982 of the elongate display feathers in male Widowbirds.  Tail feathers of some males were shortened by one-half, and some other males were ‘enhanced’ by gluing the distal half harvested from the first half. The study showed that birds with shortened tail feathers were less attractive than control (unaltered) males, while females preferred the ‘super’ males over the controls.

Clearly female Standard-winged Nightjars like those standards..!

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Chimpanzee © Inglorious Bustards

In early 1979 maltreated Chimpanzees from captivity were brought to the Gambia and introduced to the islands 300km upriver on the River Gambia.

Wild chimpanzees disappeared from The Gambia in the early 1900’s, but there are now more than 100 chimpanzees living free on three islands in four separate social groups.

Janis Carter who was instrumental in leading the project had to initially demonstrate which foods were safe, led foraging expeditions, and communicated through chimp vocalisations. Janis knew that if the chimps’ return to the wild was to be successful, she too would have to limit contact with humans. The chimps were let loose on the island. She slept in a cage.

Famously Janis accompanied a Chimpanzee named Lucy to The Gambia, Lucy was owned by the Institute for Primate Studies in Oklahoma. Lucy was reared as if she were a human child, teaching her to eat with cutlery, dress herself, flip through magazines, and sit in a chair at the dinner table. She was taught sign language and for years she was unable to relate to the other Chimpanzees in the rehabilitation centre.  After her return to the wild Lucy showed many signs of depression, including refusal to eat, and expressed sadness and hurt via sign language.

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Abyssinian Roller © Inglorious Bustards

The Abyssinian Roller is likely to be encountered anywhere within the Sahelian habitats of The Gambia and perch prominently in trees or bushes making photographs like this possible. Rather surprisingly it is believed that the population trend for this species is on the up as it exploits urban areas and agriculture.

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White-backed Night Heron © Inglorious Bustards

The White-backed Night Heron is a secretive species often found in dense Mangrove and being strictly nocturnal it makes it all the more harder to find particularly as it is rarely found at feeding areas less than one hour after sunset and usually returning to day-roosts 15–30 minutes prior to dawn.

Very little is known of its eating habits although its likely to prey upon small fish, amphibians, molluscs, crustaceans and perhaps flying ants, flies and other insects.

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Malachite Kingfisher © Inglorious Bustards

The Malachite Kingfisher is commonly found in areas of freshwater including ditches, ponds and streams.  We quite frequently find them alongside rice paddies. There is an exceptional record of a nest site nest 4 m down a well shaft but they normally nest in a bank side within a dug tunnel 25–125 cm long excavated by both pairs. The nest-chamber is going to whiff a bit as it is often lined with fish bones and regurgitated arthropod exoskeletons!…..yum!

The People

The Gambia recently began the process of returning to its membership of the Commonwealth and formally presented its application to re-join to the Secretary-General on 22nd January 2018. The Gambia officially rejoined the Commonwealth on 8th February 2018.

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Watching the morning sunrise at the unexplored upper reaches of  The River Gambia © Inglorious Bustards

With a population of just over two million people The Gambia is Africa’s smallest nation. Around 75% of people live in the cities and towns and as you journey upriver leaving behind the beach tourists you realise just how poor The Gambia is, with a third of the population surviving below the United Nations poverty line of $1.25 a day.

However inland the subsistence farming management gives rise to a huge array of wildlife not seen in neighbouring countries due to their intensity of agriculture. Long term fallows are the norm, long rotations with forested edges and even rotational scrub development which gives an amazing heterogeneity and a boom of habitats for both resident and migratory species alike. Here it is possible to find roosts of Turtle Doves several hundred strong as they are drawn to the array of seed available for them both from agricultural spillage and more natural sources. The River Gambia dominates and perhaps this availability of freshwater combined with food resources makes this area a magnet to wintering Turtle Doves.

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Our group talk with The Gambia Birdwatchers Association and Inglorious Bustards about conservation work and the importance of The Gambia for migrant birds © Inglorious Bustards

Having worked in The Gambia over a number of years on conservation projects and being the original members of #TeamPeanut we have forged great relationships and fully support and continue to work in partnership with the Gambia Bird Watchers Association. (GBA)

Inglorious Bustards work closely with GBA, giving project advice and consultation.  We are now donating 10% of our profits from all our Gambia trips to supporting their high quality, objective-led work.

These relationships enable us to give a unique visit to The Gambia and the least explored avian delights as well as ensuring that we leave behind us positive impacts for nature, the environment and its people.

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Wherever you are go you’re sure to get a smile in The Gambia © Inglorious Bustards

We still have availability on this years departure 2nd – 12th December and we hope to see you there!

More information here

Flyway Promise

The Inglorious Bustards have a challenge!  As conservationists, we are only too aware of the environmental impact of the activities associated with our business.  We want to share with you the joy of watching wildlife all along the East Atlantic flyway, but in doing so we inevitably encourage consumption of the planet´s resources. Our challenge as a responsible ecotourism operator is to ensure that our activities can be channelled into a positive outcome for the environment.  We want to make sure that, when you travel with us, you´ll be benefitting, not exploiting the wildlife we see together.  On our trips, “eco-tourism” is a promise, not an oxymoron.

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Migrating White Storks © Inglorious Bustards

We call this concept #FlywayBirding.  We have turned traditional so-called “eco-tourism” on its head, putting conservation action and education at the very heart of what we do, not just as a guilt-assuaging afterthought to our trips.  We´ve thought hard about how to bring a completely fresh approach to delivering wildlife holidays from a sustainable standpoint, making only a positive impact on our surroundings.  And we’ve worked extremely hard to build some fantastic partnerships to help us!

Here is how we’re doing it – our #FlywayPromise to you.

We encourage sustainable land use.

Our work over decades for the RSPB, attempting to reverse the fortunes of UK, European and African farmland wildlife, has made us recognise the power of food choice and how it can affect the plight of declining species.

Latest findings presented at the IPCC in October 2018 were striking and conclusive.  While everyone talks about electricity generation and fossil fuel consumption, it is an oft-ignored fact that by far the best way of having a positive impact on our planet is to change what we eatCurrently 85% of the world´s farmed land produces just 18% of our calories.  Loss of wildlife areas to agriculture is the leading cause of the current mass extinction of wildlife.  This is the legacy of meat and dairy production, which has enormous environmental costs in terms of habitat loss, air and water pollution and carbon release.

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Declines in the European Turtle Dove can be directly linked to intensive agriculture © Inglorious Bustards

 In order to keep global temperature rise below 2ºC by 2020, we as global citizens will need to eat around nine times less red meat, five times less poultry and five times more legumes, vegetables, nuts and seeds. On our trips we are working towards these changes by offering a higher proportion and better quality of vegetarian options on our dinner menus than ever before.  We want to make the choice to eat ethically an irresistible one!  Don’t worry though, carnivores! Meat is of course available as normal throughout our tours, and you’ll never be denied the chance to try some of the delicious locally-produced meat dishes our destinations are famous for.

Eco-centre

We are also extremely proud to have teamed up with the Tarifa Ecocenter.  Operating under the slogan “The fork is the most powerful tool to change the planet.”, the Ecocenter is not just a superb vegetarian restaurant, it is a local hub for eco-consciousness.  Here you can partake in delicious, sustainably-sourced meals, made with produce from local wildlife-friendly farms.  The organic produce shop and meeting spaces are a sociable place designed to encourage the exchange of ideas.  We love working in partnership with them, along with their sister project, Molino de Guadalmesi – an organic farm, community centre, eatery and eco-lodge situated in a beautifully-restored water mill.  On selected tours, we visit the mill for dinner, offering our guests a thought-provoking experience around food choice and how positive change can help our wildlife and the wider environment – not to mention be extremely tasty!

Our picnics always contain seasonal local produce from small farmers.  In all of our destinations, we are lucky enough to find a wealth of small artisanal producers, many of whom are organic.  In 2019 we will source at least 50% of the fresh goods in our picnics from them.  Our aim is to increase this to 75+% by 2020.  Luckily, local extensively grazed goats´ and sheeps´ cheeses are invariably superb, and Andalusian organic tomatoes and peppers are quite simply world-beaters!  Our picnic fruit and vegetables for our Straits-based tours are now sourced wherever possible from the Tarifa Eco-centre, being grown locally on their farm.  In all of our trips to Africa, we source fresh from local markets and village traders.

We minimise packaging waste.

It seems that after many years of campaigning, the horror of the extent of our plastic consumption has finally entered the public consciousness, and changes might actually be made.  Our history of avoidance, reuse and recycling of plastic goes back many years, but when we are out cetacean-watching on the Straits enjoying copious marine life, we are certainly pleased to be part of the current wave!

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Of all the hazardous materials littering our seas today, plastic poses one of the greatest threats – Long-finned Pilot Whales © Inglorious Bustards

Thanks to our locally-produced food sourcing, the excess of packaging associated with supermarkets is immediately eliminated.  When we buy dry and other goods, we buy in bulk and manage their use carefully, thus reducing both food and packaging waste. Luckily Niki is from Yorkshire originally, so thrift comes naturally!

We ask our clients to bring their own water bottles which are filled from taps or potable mountain springs.  In countries outside the EU where tap water is not drinkable, we buy large containers and decant into personal bottles to reduce plastic waste.

We minimise our in-country transport emissions.

In Spain, we minimise the emissions associated with our in-country transport by use of modern, fuel-efficient vehicles.  Our minibus is a Renault Trafic, known as being one of the most economical vans on the market, returning an impressive mpg of 50, with further features such as Stop & Start, Cruise Control and ECO mode adding to its green credentials.

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Lovely Jane and The Bustard-bus !

Our focus on hosting trips along the glorious East Atlantic Flyway means that we are able to arrive at 90% of our tour destinations to meet you without boarding a flight ourselves.

We know our areas well, so we are also able to apply careful route-planning to minimise driving distances between sites.

What we can´t eliminate, we offset.   

Inglorious Bustards have pledged to offset unavoidable carbon emissions through World Land Trust’s (WLT) Carbon Balanced programme.

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Unlike some carbon-offsetting schemes, this is not simply a case of absolving guilt by shoving some trees in an ill-thought-out location!  WLT funds the purchase or lease of threatened land to create nature reserves, protecting both habitats and their wildlife.  By protecting and restoring threatened forest in key areas of conservation importance, CO₂ emissions are prevented and carbon storage enhanced.To make projects like this work, this fore-sighted organisation includes, rather than excludes local communities.  It funds partner NGOs to employ local people as reserve rangers, sustainably managing some of the world’s most threatened habitats and the animals found within them.

We balance all the CO₂ emissions associated with our staff flights and all in-country travel and accommodation associated with our tours.  In 2018, we offset over 24 tonnes of CO₂, funds for which went directly to acquiring and preserving threatened forest habitat.  We are also encouraging you to offset your own holiday flights through WLT. Currently this can be done directly through their website, but in early 2019 we will be introducing an option to our booking form allowing you to offset as you book your trip!

We encourage respectful wildlife-watching.

For the prosperity of the species that we enjoy watching so much, and for our own ongoing enjoyment, it is imperative that we avoid disturbing the wildlife we are trying to see.

We never flush birds.  The reward of seeing a Red-necked Nightjar or a Tawny Owl at rest after patient and quiet searching from afar is so much greater than glimpsing one fly away after some idiot has just booted it out of the undergrowth!  For ground-nesters such as the Moroccan Marsh Owl, we now only offer trips outside the breeding season, and time our site visits to maximise the chance of finding the birds active rather than roosting.

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Red-necked Nightjar © Inglorious Bustards

We use fieldcraft to find passerines.  Usually with a little patience and listening, it is perfectly possible to find the bird you are looking for.  On the very rare occasions we choose to use a tape, we do so sensitively, always adhering to the guidelines published in the article “The Proper Use of Playback in Birding” by Sibley et al.

Where we work through other companies, for example for cetacean-watching boat trips or to look for Iberian Lynx, we only work with reputable firms who have non-intrusive wildlife-watching protocols in place.

We challenge the unethical.

While we as individuals have no problem with sustainable subsistence hunting within local communities, we personally find hunting for so-called ‘sport’ abhorrent, and unsustainable trophy hunting completely unacceptable.  The hunting industry seems to be out of control, able to damage ecosystems and illegally kill native wildlife with impunity.  Of the thirty optics companies that were examined in the 2018 Ethical Consumer report entitled “Shooting Wildlife II”, 83% were found to specifically market to hunters as well as birders.  And a disappointing 13 of these actively glamorise trophy hunting in their promotional material, including targets like lions and bears.

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Inglorious Bustard – Bubacarr in The Gambia using his super Viking Binoculars!

Viking-logos-2014_1 copyThat´s why we´re proud to be ambassadors for Viking Optical – a British-based company which is one of only a handful of companies that produce high quality optics solely for the wildlife-watching market.  They too have nature at their heart and support a variety of conservation projects including being RSPB Species Champions for two critically endangered birds and long-time sponsors of the Birdfair.  We love the personal contact, trust and compassion involved in working with them.  They really put their optics where their mouth is, enabling us to loan binoculars to volunteers monitoring the raptor migration across the Straits of Gibraltar, to bird-watching newcomers, and to budding young Gambian ornithologists.

Phew! Now that we´ve minimised our own impact on the environment as much as we can, it´s time to add positive actions!

We support local conservation projects.

All across the East Atlantic Flyway, there are passionate individuals and local NGOs running brilliant small-scale conservation initiatives, making immediate positive differences for their local wildlife.  As our company grows, so does our ability to contribute to their efforts.  Our portfolio of projects expands all the time, and you can read more on our website, but here´s a taster:

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The Migres Foundation is a private non-profit scientific and cultural foundation, focused on the preservation and enhancement of natural heritage in the Straits of Gibraltar.

Migres has run a long-term monitoring program of bird migration through the Strait of Gibraltar since 1997, making it the greatest sustained effort for monitoring migratory birds in Europe, and is immensely important in monitoring population change and migratory patterns in many avian species, including endangered species such as Egyptian Vultures and Balearic Shearwaters.

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Inglorious Bustard and Migres front-man Alejandro monitors the passage of soaring Birds © Inglorious Bustards

The body of scientific research generated by Migres on interactions between soaring birds and wind turbines has global importance.

They also perform research and awareness programs, carry out advanced ornithological training activities and environmental education, organise conferences, and encourage activities promoting sustainable local development and nature tourism in general.

We work closely with Migres in assisting with monitoring, fundraising and promotional activities using our wealth of experience gained whilst working for the RSPB.

Marisma-21-logoMarisma 21 is an organisation devoted to the restoration of the salt marshes in the Bay of Cadiz, on the south western coast of Spain. The salt marsh is an important ecological area and Marisma 21’s objectives are the recovery and holistic revitalisation of the salt pans using artisanal salt production methods. This not only ensures the maintenance of the macro-flora in the salt pans, an important food source for migratory wading birds, but enhances the local environment for aquatic salt-loving species.

The sympathetic management and hand-harvesting of the pans not only generates multiple benefits for wildlife, it also brings employment to the area in the form of salt production work and nature tourism.

On selected tours, we offer you the opportunity to dine on site at the salt pans, watching breeding Little Terns and Kentish Plovers while eating delicious freshly-cooked tortillitas de camarrones, and shrimps fished from the salt pans just moments before!  You´ll have the opportunity to support their work by taking home some souvenir salt, an incredibly tasty product you´ll also get to sample at our picnics!

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Sustainable, traditional management of the salt pans for the environment, nature and people © Inglorious Bustards

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Based at Kotu Creek, near Brufut, The Gambia Birdwatchers Association was established in 2007.  It provides a headquarters for the area´s bird guides, trains the next generation of ornithologists, and carries out excellent project-based conservation work, including utilising local volunteers in the restoration of mangrove swamp habitat.  In The Gambia, many important forests are community-owned, and GBA are instrumental in setting up community reserves, training bird guides in the villages and enabling them to benefit from the preservation of forest habitat through well-thought-out ecotourism.

Inglorious Bustards work closely with GBA, giving project advice and consultation.  From 2019, we will be donating 10% of our profits from all our Gambia trips to supporting their high quality, objective-led work.

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The Gambia Birdwatchers Association discussing their conservation priorities and work © Inglorious Bustards

So there it is, our #FlywayPromise.  We hope you like it! We are constantly striving to find new ways to use our passion for #FlywayBirding to make the planet a better place.  Our hope is not to be different, but that others will rise to this challenge too.

A Swift Weekend to Remember

4 Days. 5 Swift Species. 135 bird species. 13 Spain ticks. 5 world Lifers.  And aside from the numbers, this trip offered just a superb weekend of birding in Andalusia with our guest John, in wetland, farmland, woodland and mountain habitats, giving fantastic views of all the wealth of breeding bird species the area has to offer!

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Little Swift © Inglorious Bustards

White-rumped, Little and Alpine Swifts shone out from the astonishing masses of Pallid and Common Swifts, day-roosting Red-necked Nightjars and Tawny Owls caused us much hushed excitement, and we enjoyed encountering all the other hard-to-see specialities of the area, such as Rufous Bushchat, Common Bulbul, Red-knobbed Coot, White-headed Duck, Red-crested Pochard, Audouin´s Gull, Black-eared Wheatear and Northern Bald Ibis.

Butterflies and reptiles were also super-abundant in the perfect weather, as was tasty food, cold beer and good company! This was to be a swift weekend to remember!

On the farmlands of La Janda, the air was absolutely filled with enormous flocks of several thousand feeding Pallid and Common Swifts, with a mass emergence of Red-veined Darters making up the larger part of their airborne feast.  As we enjoyed our first picnic lunch, we were joined by a Great Spotted Cuckoo, while a Short-toed Eagle, a Western Marsh Harrier and several early-migrating Black Kites drifted overhead.

Moving to a higher area of the farm we stopped at a patch of bushes.  A quick search with our optics in the undergrowth and the leaf litter and we were looking at a gorgeous Red-necked Nightjar!  We looked on in hushed awe, taking great care not to disturb this beautiful bird as it rested.

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Red-necked Nightjar © Inglorious Bustards

We enjoyed the brilliant value Egret colony with Little and Cattle Egrets nearly ready to fledge, pootling around the trees like little arboreal chickens. A single Black-crowned Night Heron also caught our eye.  We also had views of Sand Martins, singing Turtle Doves, and over fifty European Bee-eaters, as well as Glossy Ibis, Eurasian Spoonbill, Green and Wood Sandpiper amongst others.

To celebrate a great day, we took John for a night out in Tarifa!  Here we added Common Bulbul to John´s Spain list and enjoyed the antics of the town´s Lesser Kestrel colony currently full of newly fledged youngsters.

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Look up! Birds & Beer in Tarifa Town

We enjoyed superb Spanish/Mediterranean cuisine, made from locally sourced organic ingredients at Tarifa Ecocenter, before trying a pint or two of ale from the local microbrewery!

Wandering through a local Cork Oak and Wild Olive dehesa, beautifully cool in the shade, we found many newly-fledged birds, accompanied by their parents.  These included Corn Buntings, Woodchat Shrikes, Common Nightingales and Sardinian Warblers.  There were also large numbers of Spotted Flycatchers, part of an early passage south.

Pausing at a site that looked good for warblers, we tuned into a song of short, melancholy phrases – a Rufous Bushchat was singing!  This was our main target for the morning, and with a bit of patience and careful following of the sounds we managed to get astonishing views of this glamorous Chat. Another for the Spain list…

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A Rufous-tailed Bushchat encounter!

While Niki & Simon prepared a lunch of delicious local salads, olives, meats and cheeses – not to mention a nice cold Cruzcampo beer – John enjoyed watching Black-eared Wheatears, Thekla and Crested Larks, Crag Martins, Short-toed Eagles, Griffon Vultures, Northern Ravens and a Peregrine Falcon overhead, and a couple of Monarch butterflies, at a mountainside site known as La Peña.

picnic at la Peña
Picnic at La Peña

A fantastic afternoon´s birding at the disused saltpans of Barbate awaited!  A great selection of roosting seabirds including Sandwich Terns, Audouin´s, Slender-billed and Mediterranean Gulls greeted us when we arrived.  Kentish Plovers, Pied Avocets and Common Redshanks were super-numerous, and after a little searching we found several Collared Pratincoles and a Eurasian Stone Curlew.  Short-toed Larks and Iberian Yellow Wagtails were there, and a fab Little Owl watched us from the fence.  We enjoyed watching fearless, noisy Little Terns seeing off marauding Yellow-legged Gulls from their nesting colony.

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Audouin´s Gull © Inglorious Bustards

A slightly earlier start one day gave us time to enjoy the avian wonders of the Bay of Cadiz, and the eastern side of Doñana National Park!  En route, mooching peacefully about on dew-covered grass, we found five brilliant and quirky Northern Bald Ibis!  One of the ten most endangered birds in the world, these charismatic individuals are doing well here in Andalusia, several generations in to a successful reintroduction project.

At a harbourfront complex on the Bay of Cadiz, we stopped for a coffee and were greeted by a swirling mass of Common Swifts. Amongst the screaming we heard a giggle, and sure enough there was a Little Swift!  As we sat down with a cuppa we counted at least six amongst the mélé, allaying our fears that the colony had suffered a wipeout during March´s storms.

papping Little Swifts
papping Little Swifts!

At the Bonanza saltpans, copious microfauna in the traditionally-harvested salt pans made them glow an extraordinary iridescent pink.  The pans were teeming with Slender-billed Gulls, Greater Flamingoes, Kentish Plover, Common Redshank and Pied Avocet. A couple of Dunlin signalled that here too, the southbound migration had already begun.  Little Terns, a Gull-billed Tern and an Audouin´s Gull were also seen, as well as Iberian Yellow Wagtails.

Salt Pans
Salt Pans
Kentish Plover
Kentish Plover © Inglorious Bustards

Some unassuming roadside irrigation ponds in Colorado made for some simply fantastic birding.  There were several White-headed Ducks and Red-crested Pochards with ducklings, Ferruginous Duck as well as Little Bittern, Common Waxbill, Black-crowned Night Heron, Common Kingfisher and Great Reed Warbler.  And there, right at the day´s end, skulking in the shade, was a single Red-knobbed Coot, knobs glowing in the occasional shaft of sunlight!  Another much sought-after Spain tick for John, and his third Lifer of the day!

In the shade of Cork Oaks, Laurels and conifers at a local huerta we enjoyed the sights and sounds of Short-toed Treecreepers, Crested Tits, Iberian Chiffchaffs and Firecrests while Speckled Woods and Purple Hairstreaks flitted through the canopy.  And, after some careful peering up through branches, we managed to find a day-roosting Tawny Owl!  A superb bird to see in daylight at the best of times, made all the sweeter for being a Spain tick for John.

And for our grand finale, at a reservoir site in the Alcornacales Natural Park, we achieved extraordinary views of a pair of White-rumped Swifts!  A joyous little bird, with quite a different jizz to its larger cousins.  We spent some time enjoying their comings and goings and were further rewarded when John picked out an Alpine Swift amongst the throng, completing our Swift Grand Slam!

Then all too soon it was time to take John to his flight at Gibraltar airport.  On the way we discussed our trip and found that, as well as seeing all five Swift species and a wealth of other fantastic wildlife, we had also smashed John’s target and got his Spain list to 254!  An enjoyable and memorable weekend all round – thanks John!

If you´re looking to escape the summer birding lull in the UK, this is the trip for you!  Birding the Straits of Gibraltar at this time gives you access to a wealth of breeding species that can´t be seen anywhere else in Europe!  Take a look at the Swift Weekender 2018 trip report to see what we mean!  Join us in 2019 for a Swift Weekender

Team Swift
Team Swift

Welcome to #FlywayBirding!

It’s always a joy to observe birds in any location, but what if there was a way to experience their whole journey? We’re currently bucking the avian trend and heading north to Birdfair where, as well as enjoying a fab weekend with friends old and new, we’ll be introducing folk to the concept of Flyway Birding

It´s not that long since we largely believed that Barn Swallows hibernated underwater.  Rumours of ´lumps of torpid swallows´ being ´found beneath the ice´ still persisted in rural communities as late as 1867, over thirty years after Darwin had embarked on his world-changing voyages of discovery aboard The Beagle.

Wallcreeper © Inglorious Bustards

Happily for the inquisitive, this great era of discovery opened the world up to ‘travelling naturalists’ – the earliest nature bloggers if you like – exploring the natural world, sharing observations of migration and opening the minds of the folk waiting excitedly at home.  The discoveries continue – thanks initially to bird-ringing and more recently to affordable radio- and satellite-tracking technologies, our understanding of migratory birds´ journeys grows all the time.

With this understanding, the concept of saving species across flyways has now gained traction in the conservation world.  After all, there´s no point fixing things for a wandering bird in its breeding grounds alone without giving it a helping hand across its entire migratory range.  Programmes like the RSPB´s Birds Without Borders recognise the complex nature of the threats faced by a bird whose life cycle involves traversing half the globe.

Fun and birding in the Pyrenees © Inglorious Bustards

Take that most iconic of British summertime birds, the Turtle Dove.  A drastic reduction in UK breeding success is at the root of their decline and must be remedied by more Nature-friendly management of our farmland.  But while their productivity in the UK is so desperately low, we must also find ways to help Turtle Doves meet the challenges they face elsewhere in the world, such as illegal and legal hunting, the ever-widening and unstable Sahara, and threats to their wintering habitats, also from intensive farming.

These are the kind of projects we at the Inglorious Bustards camp spent a great deal of time, passion and energy working on during our time at the RSPB.  We´ve been lucky enough to travel with the birds and gain a deep connection to their journey, seeing the similarities and differences between the habitats, landscapes and cultures they pass through.

Migrating White Storks © Inglorious Bustards

Now we´ve taken a sideways step, conservation is still very much in our hearts and we want to make sure it continues to be central to everything we do.  We want to use our passion to open people´s minds to the immeasureable wonder of migration.

And so, one day while sipping a cold beer overlooking the Straits of Gibraltar, watching literally thousands of raptors pour south over our heads to Africa we got to thinking… What if, through our trips, we could take you on a migratory bird´s journey?  We could show you all the outstanding birds and wildlife of the East Atlantic Flyway!

We could also show you the beauty of the immense journey, sweeping past cream teas outside stone chapels in twee country lanes, over white-washed villages amidst olive groves on sunbathed hillsides, through minarets and mint teahouses, down to the simple dwellings and explosive foliage of the Gambian forests.

#FlywayBirding breakfast © Inglorious Bustards

We could show you the fun of experiencing other cultures through supporting local businesses, conservation NGOs and ecotourism endeavours, having a laugh with the locals and bringing you closer to the country you´re in.

And we could show you the challenges facing these birds and alert you to the work of our Flyway Family partners across the globe – groups like the Dovestep collective, raising money for Operation Turtle Dove who work hard to persuade farmers to leave space for Nature, Fundacion Migres doing extraordinary monitoring and scientific work to mitigate for the windfarms in the Straits of Gibraltar, Tarifa Ecocenter spreading the message of sustainable farming through amazing food and Champions of the Flyway combatting illegal hunting everywhere.

Egyptian Plover © Inglorious Bustards

It sounded like a plan!  The concept of #FlywayBirding was born!

That´s what it means to us, but what will it mean to you..?

Well, in a nutshell, #FlywayBirding is…

…thrilling at the sight of local specialities like Wallcreepers in the Pyrenees, Rufous Bushchats in Andalusia, Moussiers Redstarts in the Rif Mountains of Morocco, Moroccan Marsh Owls on the shores of the Merja Zerga lagoon and Egyptian Plovers on the verdant riverbanks of The Gambia, while becoming aware of the constant ebb and flow of Swallows, Swifts, Wagtails and Warblers, all familiar but strangely out of context.

…kicking off your flipflops in a carefully-selected reclining deckchair and supping an ice-cold beer as literally thousands of Honey Buzzards, Black Kites, Short-toed and Booted Eagles and White Storks pour overhead.

…helping save the planet over a delicious locally-sourced meal!  Whether it´s exceptional fresh fruit, veg, cheeses and hams in Spain, mouth-watering tagines in Morocco or a spicy domoda in the Gambia…

…greeting thousands of Turtle Doves on a sultry day in The Gambia and learning how to ensure their journey back home is a safe one.

…thrilling at clouds of Pallid and Little Swifts screaming around the minarets of a mosque and noting the Common Swifts, probably on their way back to a city near you.

…appreciating that the sweep of subtle differences across the flyway – the brightness of an African Blue Tit, the astounding array of Yellow Wagtail races, the Iberian birds with closer relatives in Africa than in Europe – are the intricate stepping stones to whole new species.

…enjoying the laughs and banter we have with the people we meet, sharing our enthusiasm for nature and adventures across cultures and landscapes.

…relaxing, enjoying and marvelling at the wildlife around you, satisfied in the knowledge that your trip is contributing to its future existence.

Upriver in  The Gambia © Inglorious Bustards

Imagine the delight in discovering that, far from being somewhere in a frozen torpid lump, our Barn Swallows were awake and well and whizzing through the skies of some foreign land!  Here at the Inglorious Bustards, we´re all about the delight of discovery!  Now you know what it is, won´t you join us for some #FlywayBirding..?

Want to hear more? We’ll be at BirdFair in Rutland this weekend. We’d love to see you at Stand 28, Marquee 1, or at our talk in Hobby Lecture Theatre at 9.30am, Friday. Come say Hi!

This blog was first published by our good friends Blue Sky Wildlife on 23/07/2018

AvianAir is now cleared for take-off!

With migration curtailed by several days of strong easterlies (strong enough to bring a tree down on the Bustard-mobile, but that’s another story!), and many thousands of soaring birds anxious to make the journey south, this week it became a little like a crowded airport departure lounge here in the Straits!

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White Stork bedlam! Can you find the Black Kites? © Inglorious Bustards

Flocks of Black Kites and White Storks numbering in the thousands have been tumbling up and down the coast, and hanging in the air, making it look like someone just shook a snow globe!

When your journey’s delayed by bad weather, there’s only so many times you can visit Sock Shop and Sunglasses Hut. After much milling about, these birds have been collecting in huge super-flocks in the valleys – presumably the equivalent of the Wetherspoons!

But today, as we sat down to monitor the migration with our conservation partners Fundacion Migres, it became apparent that the great air-traffic controller in the sky had finally granted them a clear take off to Morocco!

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Final call! This juvenile Black Kite is clear for take off ! via Morocco it will head for sub-saharan Africa © Inglorious Bustards

Arriving from:

The Straits of Gibraltar is one of the greatest bottlenecks for the East Atlantic Flyway. The Black Kites zooming over our heads have come from all over Western Europe and move south across a broad front, crossing here and at Italy’s Straits of Messina. White Storks are more reliant on soaring, and find the sea at Messina too wide. The entirety of Europe’s migrating population will cross here.

Departing to:

For the White Storks it’s a relatively short-haul flight, for a winter break in North Africa. The powerfully-flying Black Kites head further, across the Sahara to countries like  The Gambia and Senegal. They will be the first to return, and we look forward to seeing them arrive from February onwards.

Our day passed in a whir of clickers and plenty of exclamations at the sheer volumes of birds swirling past us. We finally had a chance to take stock for a moment in the afternoon and realised that we had already counted 18,000 birds! Yes, eighteen thousand! By the time we left, we could see black-and-white blobs before our eyes and our final count was 19,488 White Storks, Black Kites, Booted Eagles, Short-toes Eagles, Montagu’s Harriers and Egyptian Vultures for the day!

Days like this happen throughout the Autumn (and Spring!) – if you’ve not experienced this yet (or even if you have!) then you should head for a departure lounge near you and join us this August for some serious #FlywayBirding!!

…..oh! ….You may want to know the actual totals?…so here goes (take a deep breath!!)….

11,670 White Storks
7,748 Black Kites
5 Egyptian Vultures
16 Booted Eagles
3 Montagu’s Harriers
41 Short-toed Eagles
2 Common Buzzards
3 Lesser Kestrels

…..AND ….RELAX!

 

Punk Is Not Dead!

 

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A loving pair of Northern Bald Ibis © Inglorious Bustards

Sitting proudly on a nest made of twigs, old wet wipes and what appears to be a leopard-print thong, the bird blinks at the downdraft of a passing truck, shakes the irridescent mohawk sprouting haphazardly out of the back of its raw-looking bald head, and returns to the task of tending its extraordinary metallic green and purple-brown plumage with what genuinely looks like pride.

With less than 500 birds remaining in the wild, the Northern Bald Ibis is a bird on the brink. But with a successful reintroduction underway right here in Andalusia, it seems punk really isn’t dead…

For the sixth year running, a small group of Northern Bald Ibises are doing well at Barca de la Vejer in Cadiz province. Bizarrely nesting right beside an ‘A’ road next to a car park and a couple of ventas, this is perhaps not the most picturesque of locations for one of the world’s most endangered birds, but it’s almost certainly the most viewable.

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Northern Bald Ibis © Inglorious Bustards

With their nest site so urban and public, their confiding behaviour when feeding on nearby pastureland, and their seeming air of slightly baffled contentment, it’s easy to forget just how fragile their existence actually is, and how much work has gone into ensuring their successful establishment as a breeding bird in Andalusia.

Declared extinct in Syria 70 years ago, a small breeding population was traced near Palmyra in 2002 thanks to local knowledge of Bedouin tribesmen, only to be declared extinct again in 2016 after the one remaining female failed to return from migration.

In Turkey, numbers crashed from 400 to just 10 birds between 1982 and 1986. The fact that this population long outlasted the species in the rest of Europe (it had vanished from its heartlands in the mountains of Switzerland, Germany, Austria and Spain by the 17th Century) is connected with celebration of this bird’s religious significance, endowed as it is with the role of guiding Haji pilgrims to Mecca. How ironic that, to prevent its complete disappearance from Turkey, they are now taken into captivity at the end of the breeding season for safety, to prevent their Mecca-bound migration.

In Morocco the population of this strange, punk-like creature is split between colonies around Souss-Massa National Park and the Oued Tamri north of Agadir. These birds number only 500 between them and are the only remnant wild population left.

The reasons for their decline are all tragically familiar – reduction of food availability through agricultural intensification, pesticide and rodenticide poisoning, hunting pressure and nest-robbing have all played their part. This sociable cliff-nester has seemingly scuppered itself due to its attraction to human habitation, which nowadays tends to expand quickly and swallow up potential breeding grounds.

Hope for the future of the Northern Bald Ibis comes in the form of reintroduction programmes, such as Andalusia’s Proyecto Eremita, the one that has resulted in the above roadside bird with a penchant for leopard-print!

The project is a partnership between the Junta de Andalusia, the Spanish Ministry of Defence, and the Zoobotánico de Jeréz, with the assistance of the Doñana Biological Station, Spanish research council CSIC (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas) and volunteers from the Cádiz Natural History Society.

Unlike other reintroduction programmes in Europe, which have tried to create migratory populations (The Scharnstein Project in Austria attempted to teach a migration route to Tuscany by training the birds to follow ultralight planes!), the aims of Proyecto Eremita are more down-to-earth.

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Spanish born Northern Bald Ibis © Inglorious Bustards

It seeks to create a sedentary population of birds, self-sustaining in number, without the need for supplementary feeding. The original phase of the project from 2003-2012 also aimed to learn about the best methods of chick rearing and release, to inform the intended future expansion of the programme.

Chicks were hand-reared from eggs originated from various zoos across Europe. After extensive field habitat evaluations, the first 30 birds were released on military land in La Janda district in 2004 and a further 160 boosted their numbers over the next five years until 2009.

First success came when a pair laid two eggs in 2008. Since then the colony has been steadily growing, from 9 breeding pairs in 2011, 10 in 2012 and 15 in 2013 to 23 breeding pairs in 2014, which successfully raised 25 chicks.

In 2014 the total population was 78 wild birds, distributed between two colonies, five breeding pairs having split from the original one along the cliffs of the Atlantic coast to form the quirky roadside extravaganza at La Barca de Vejer.

But they’re not out of the woods – or indeed the car park – just yet. With a death rate slightly too high and reproductive success slightly too low, population modelling carried out on 2012 figures shows that, without the ongoing addition of 20-30 released birds each year, the population would gradually dwindle to extinction in around 20 years.

With a population this small, chance can play a large part in survival. In the early years of the project, around 50% of deaths were caused by fatal encounters with power lines. Work to repair and improve the lines and their supports was undertaken in high risk areas, and if this continues to be successful a sustainable population will be well within reach.

As of June 2016, the wild population was holding steady at around 80 birds and the exceptional recent breeding season means hopes are high for the future of the species. Some interesting movements have also been observed, with up to six birds being seen crossing the Straits to explore Morocco, where, who knows, they may be rebelliously building another colony next to some other roadside café.

Here at The Inglorious Bustards camp, we’ve been lucky enough to visit these birds frequently as the 2018 breeding season progresses. It’s easy to endow these characterful birds with human emotions, and we never tire of bringing people here to watch them.

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Sometimes you got to get some support for the perfect picture! © Inglorious Bustards

We love to see their joyous interactions with their mates on receipt of yet another bit of detritus to be built in to the nest, their intense irritation at the jackdaws dodging their unwieldy bills as they steal morsels of nesting material, and their unmistakeable tenderness towards their growing chicks, which only a mother could love, resembling as they do badly-plucked miniature turkeys.

As well for as their antics, they’re well worth a view to show solidarity with Vejer’s locals and their justified pride in this bizarrely-located nesting colony. As birds go, not a lot about the Northern Bald Ibis makes sense, but they’ve chosen it, they’re rocking it, and it looks like they’re here to stay.

You have to see these incredible birds to believe them! We still have a limited amount of spaces available on our Autumn Migration and Cetaceans tour, during which we´ll visit the avian kings and queens of punk at their colony, as well as taking our place in the moshpit for the greatest avian migration show on earth!

This is an abridged version of our article that previously appeared in the journal of the Andalusia Bird Society, ‘Birds of Andalucìa’, vol 6 issue 3, Summer 2017.